Bezel: 11 1/2mm (height) 9 1/2mm (breadth). Tapered Width Band: 3 1/2mm (at bezel) 2 1/2mm (at sides) 2 1/2mm (at back). Moderately light wear evidenced consistent with ancient usage. Very faint porosity (surface pitting caused by contact with earth while buried). DETAIL : A very well preserved silver ring circa 9th or 10th century A.As you can see, the ring is very handsome and elegant in design. The "bezel" or face of the ring bears a very distinct stylized starburst design. Variations on the starburst design had been popular over a thousand years before the construction of this ring, tracing its roots well back into the earliest periods of the Roman Empire. By the turn of the first millennium in the medieval world, the thematic variations had become quite elaborate, as in the case of this specimen. This is a fairly light weight ring, more like a contemporary ring than the thick and lumpy rings often produced during the early years of the Roman Empire.
It is a very handsome and complex design, and probably was a very significant personal possession of whomsoever originally owned the ring. There are unmistakable indications that the ring was worn fairly often by whomsoever the ancient owner was, but the ring is in no way worn out. And without any regard to twenty-first century posterity, that precisely what happened!
The original ancient owner of this ring wore it, enjoyed it, and probably never could have in his most delusional moment ever dreamed that forty or fifty generations later the ring would still exist. It should likewise come as no surprise that also detectable are the telltale signs that the ring spent thousands of years in the soil.
The evidence is known as porosity, which is fine surface pitting (oxidation, corrosion) caused by extended burial in caustic soil. Many small ancient metal artifacts such as this are extensively disfigured and suffer substantial degradation as a consequence of the ordeal of being buried for millennia. It is not at all unusual to find metal artifacts decomposed to the point where they are not much more substantial than discolored patterns in the soil. Actually most smaller ancient artifacts such as this are so badly oxidized that oftentimes all that is left is a green (bronze) or red (iron) stain in the soil, or an artifact which crumbles in your hand. However this specimen is not so afflicted, and certainly has not been disfigured.Even to close inspection, it simply looks like an ancient ring, nicely surfaced, no immediately discernible blemishes. You have to look very closely, such as with a jewelers loupe or in these photo enlargements, to detect the telltale signs indicating the ring was buried for many centuries. This ring spent a thousand years buried, yet by good fortune there is only an exceptionally light degree of porosity evidenced.
It happened to come to rest in very gentle soil conditions. Consequentially, the integrity of the artifact remains undiminished, and despite the very mild porosity, the ring remains quite handsome, and entirely wearable. Light wear and porosity aside, the ring evidences very fine workmanship, and is entirely intact. The ring is of one-piece construction, much like a contemporary ring. The more archaic rings produced by Roman artisans were characteristically made in two pieces; an incomplete ring (a shank) with a separately crafted bezel which was brazed to the shank in order to assemble the ring.
The ring is in exceptionally good condition, integrity unimpaired, and could easily be worn and enjoyed on a daily basis. The ring is very modern and distinctive in appearance, a classic and timeless design. The ring has a very rich, silvery color (and is most likely alloyed with a minor portion of bronze). The ring dates to a time when the Western Roman World had collapsed, plunging Western Europe into 1,000 years of darkness.
But at the time, yet to confront Islam, the Eastern Roman Empire still flourished as one of the globes great powers. It is an interesting historical relic which pertains not only to the history of Roman Byzantium, but also to the history of jewelry production. The Romans as well as their Byzantine successors were of course very fond of ornate personal jewelry including bracelets worn both on the forearm and upper arm, brooches, pendants, hair pins, earrings intricate fibulae and belt buckles, and of course, rings.
This is an exceptional piece of Roman-Byzantine jewelry, a very handsome artifact, and eminently wearable. Aside from being significant to the history of ancient jewelry, it is also an evocative relic of one of the worlds greatest civilizations and the ancient worlds most significant military machines; the glory, might and light which was the Roman Empire of Byzantium. HISTORY OF ROMAN CONSTANTINOPLE: Constantinople grew from a tiny Hellenic city known as Byzantium into one of the ancient worlds greatest cities. Prior to the fifth century collapse of the Western Roman Empire, one of Romes greatest emperors, Constantine the Great, established a second capital city for the Roman Empire in the East at Byzantium, present day Turkey.
Constantine The Great sought to reunite the Roman Empire, centered upon Christian faith, by establishing a second "capital" for the Eastern Roman, away from the pagan influences of the city of Rome. Established as the new capital city for the Eastern Roman Empire in the fourth century, Constantine named the city in his own honor, Constantinople. Eventually the Byzantine Empire stretched from its capital in Constantinople (present-day Istanbul, Turkey) through much of Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, and small portions of North Africa and the Middle East.
After the fifth-century collapse of the Western Roman Empire, the Eastern Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire, lasted for another thousand years as the cultural, religious and economic center of Eastern Europe. At the same time, as a consequence of the fall of the Western Roman Empire, most of the rest of Europe suffered through one thousand years of the "dark ages". As the center of the Byzantine Empire, Constantinople was one of the most elaborate, civilized, and wealthy cities in all of history. The Christian Church eventually became the major political force in the Byzantine Empire.
In Byzantine art, God rather than man stood at the center of the universe. Constantine the Great is also credited with being the first Christian Roman Emperor, and was eventually canonized by the Orthodox Church.
Christianity had of course been generally outlawed prior to his reign. Under the Byzantine Empire, Christianity became more than just a faith, it was the theme of the entire empire, its politics, and the very meaning of life. Christianity formed an all-encompassing way of life, and the influence of the Byzantine Empire reached far both in terms of time and geography, certainly a predominant influence in all of Europe up until the Protestant Reformation. Representations of Christ, the Virgin, and various saints predominated the coinage of the era. The minting of the coins remained crude however, and collectors today prize Byzantine coins for their extravagant variations; ragged edges, "cupped" coins, etc.
Other artifacts such as rings, pendants, and pottery are likewise prized for their characteristically intricate designs. HISTORY OF SILVER : After gold, silver is the metal most widely used in jewelry and the most malleable. The oldest silver artifacts found by archaeologists date from ancient Sumeria about 4,000 B. At many points in the ancient world, it was actually more costly than gold, particularly in ancient Egypt.
Silver is found in native form i. In nuggets, as an alloy with gold (electrum), and in ores containing sulfur, arsenic, antimony or chlorine. Much of the silver originally found in the ancient world was actually a natural alloy of gold and silver (in nugget form) known as electrum. The first large-scale silver mines were in Anatolia (ancient Turkey) and Armenia, where as early as 4,000 B.Silver was extracted from lead ores by means of a complicated process known as smelting. Even then the process was not perfect, as ancient silver does contain trace elements, typically lead, gold, bismuth and other metals, and as much as a third of the silver was left behind in the slag. However measuring the concentrations of the impurities in ancient silver can help the forensic jewelry historian in determining the authenticity of classical items. From Turkey and Armenia silver refining technology spread to the rest of Asia Minor and Europe.
By about 2,500 B. The Babylonians were one of the major refiners of silver. Silver treasures recovered by archaeologists from the second and third millenniums demonstrate the high value the ancient Mediterranean and Near East placed upon silver. Some of the richest burials in history uncovered by archaeologists have been from this time frame, that of Queen Puabi of Ur, Sumeria 26th century B. , and the rich Trojan 25th century B.And Mycenaean 18th century B. Treasures uncovered by Heinrich Schliemann. The ancient Egyptians believed that the skin of their gods was composed of gold, and their bones were thought to be of silver. When silver was introduced into Egypt, it probably was more valuable than gold (silver was rarer and more valuable than gold in many Mesoamerican cultures as well). In surviving inventories of valuables, items of silver were listed above those of gold during the Old Kingdom.
Jewelry made of silver was almost always thinner than gold pieces, as indicated by the bracelets of the 4th Dynasty about 2,500 B. Queen Hetephere I, in marked contrast to the extravagance of her heavy gold jewelry.
A silver treasure excavated by archaeologists and attributable to the reign of Amenemhat II who ruled during the 12th Dynasty about 1900 B. , contained fine silver items which were actually produced in Crete, by the ancient Minoans. When the price of silver finally did fall due to more readily available supplies, for at least another thousand years through at least the 19th dynasty, about 1,200 B. The price of silver seems to have been fixed at half that of gold.
Several royal mummies attributable to about 1,000 B. Were even entombed in solid silver coffins. Greek Athenians began producing silver from the Laurium mines, and would supply much of the ancient Mediterranean world with its silver for almost 1,000 years. This ancient source was eventually supplemented around 800 B.(and then eventually supplanted) by the massive silver mines found in Spain by the Phoenicians and their colony (and ultimate successors) the Carthaginians (operated in part by Hannibals family). With the defeat of Carthage by Rome, the Romans gained control of these vast deposits, and mined massive amounts of silver from Spain, stripping entire forests regions for timber to fuel smelting operations. In fact, it was not until the Middle Ages that Spains silver mines (and her forests) were finally exhausted. Although known during the Copper Age, silver made only rare appearances in jewelry before the classical age.
Despite its infrequent use as jewelry however, silver was widely used as coinage due to its softness, brilliant color, and resistance to oxidation. By the Lydians of present-day Turkey. Having access to silver deposits and being able to mine them played a big role in the classical world. Actual silver coins were first produced in Lydia about 610 B.
And subsequently in Athens in about 580 B. Many historians have argued that it was the possession and exploitation of the Laurium mines by the Athenians that allowed them to become the most powerful city state in Greece. The Athenians were well aware of the significance of the mining operations to the prosperity of their city, as every citizen had shares in the mines. Enough silver was mined and refined at Laurium to finance the expansion of Athens as a trading and naval power. One estimate is that Laurium produced 160 million ounces of silver, worth six billion dollars today (when silver is by comparison relatively cheap and abundant).As the production of silver from the Laurium mines ultimately diminished, Greek silver production shifted to mines in Macedonia. Silver coinage played a significant role in the ancient world. Macedonias coinage during the reign of Philip II 359-336 B. Circulated widely throughout the Hellenic world.
His famous son, Alexander the Great 336-323 B. , spread the concept of coinage throughout the lands he conquered.For both Philip II and Alexander silver coins became an essential way of paying their armies and meeting other military expenses. They also used coins to make a realistic portrait of the ruler of the country. The Romans also used silver coins to pay their legions. Roman silver coins also served as an important means of political propaganda, extolling the virtues of Rome and her emperors, and continued in the Greek tradition of realistic portraiture. As well, many public works and architectural achievements were also depicted (among them the Coliseum, the Circus Maximus). In addition many important political events were recorded on the coinage. Roman coins depicted the assassination of Julius Caesar, alliances between cities, between emperors, between armies, etc. And many contenders for the throne of Rome are known only through their coinage. Silver was also widely used as ornamental work and in other metal wares.
In ancient cultures, especially in Rome, silver was highly prized for the making of plate ware, household utensils, and ornamental work. The stability of Romes economy and currency depended primarily on the output of the silver mines in Spain which they had wrested from the Carthaginians. In fact many historians would say that it was the control of the wealth of these silver mines which enabled Rome to conquer most of the Mediterranean world. The Romans invaded Britain they were quick to discover and exploit the lead-silver deposits there as well.Only six years later they had established many mines and Britain became another major source of silver for the Roman Empire. It is estimated that by the second century A. 10,000 tons of Roman silver coins were in circulation within the empire. Thats about 3½ billion silver coins (at the height of the empire, there were over 400 mints throughout the empire producing coinage).
Thats ten times the total amount of silver available to Medieval Europe and the Islamic world combined as of about 800 A. Silver later lost its position of dominance to gold, particularly in the chaos following the fall of Rome. Large-scale mining in Spain petered out, and when large-scale silver mining finally resumed four centuries after the fall of Rome, most of the mining activity was in Central Europe. By the time of the European High Middle Ages, silver once again became the principal material used for metal artwork.Huge quantities of silver from the New World also encouraged eager buyers in Europe, and enabled the Spanish to become major players in the late Medieval and Renaissance periods. Unlike the ores in Europe which required laborious extraction and refining methods to result in pure silver, solid silver was frequently found as placer deposits in stream beds in Spains New World colonies, reportedly in some instances solid slabs weighing as much as 2,500 pounds.
Prior to the discovery of massive silver deposits in the New World, silver had been valued during the Middle Ages at about 10%-15% of the value of gold. The discovery of massive silver deposits in the New World during the succeeding centuries has caused the price to diminish greatly, falling to only 1-2% of the value of gold. The art of silver work flourished in the Renaissance, finding expression in virtually every imaginable form.Silver was often plated with gold and other decorative materials. Although silver sheets had been used to overlay wood and other metals since ancient Greece, an 18th-century technique of fusing thin silver sheets to copper brought silver goods called Sheffield plate within the reach of most people. At the same time the use of silver in jewelry making had also started gaining popularity in the 17th century. It was often as support in settings for diamonds and other transparent precious stones, in order to encourage the reflection of light. Silver continued to gain in popularity throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, and by the 20th century competed with gold as the principal metal used in the manufacture of jewelry.
Silver has the highest thermal and electrical conductivity of any metal, and one of the highest optical reflectivity values. It has a brilliant metallic luster, is very ductile and malleable, only slightly harder than gold, and is easily worked and polished. When used in jewelry, silver is commonly alloyed to include 7.5% copper, known as sterling silver, to increase the hardness and reduce the melting temperature.
Silver jewelry may be plated with 99.9% pure Fine Silver to increase the shine when polished. It may also be plated with rhodium to prevent tarnish. Virtually all gold, with the exception of 24 carat gold, includes silver.
Most gold alloys are primarily composed of only gold and silver. Throughout the history of the ancient world, gemstones were believed capable of curing illness, possessed of valuable metaphysical properties, and to provide protection. Found in Egypt dated 1500 B. The "Papyrus Ebers" offered one of most complete therapeutic manuscripts containing prescriptions using gemstones and minerals. Gemstones were not only valued for their medicinal and protective properties, but also for educational and spiritual enhancement.Precious minerals were likewise considered to have medicinal and magical properties in the ancient world. In its pure form silver is non toxic, and when mixed with other elements is used in a wide variety of medicines. Silver ions and silver compounds show a toxic effect on some bacteria, viruses, algae and fungi. Silver was widely used before the advent of antibiotics to prevent and treat infections, silver nitrate being the prevalent form.
Silver Iodide was used in babies' eyes upon birth to prevent blinding as the result of bacterial contamination. Silver is still widely used in topical gels and impregnated into bandages because of its wide-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The recorded use of silver to prevent infection dates to ancient Greece and Rome.Hippocrates, the ancient 5th century B. Greek "father of medicine" wrote that silver had beneficial healing and anti-disease properties. The ancient Phoenicians stored water, wine, and vinegar in silver bottles to prevent spoiling. These uses were rediscovered in the Middle Ages, when silver was used for several purposes; such as to disinfect water and food during storage, and also for the treatment of burns and wounds as a wound dressing. The ingestion of colloidal silver was also believed to help restore the body's electromagnetic balance to a state of equilibrium, and it was believed to detoxify the liver and spleen.
In the 19th century sailors on long ocean voyages would put silver coins in barrels of water and wine to keep the liquid potable. Silver (and gold) foil is also used through the world as a food decoration. Traditional Indian dishes sometimes include the use of decorative silver foil, and in various cultures silver dragée (silver coated sugar balls) are used to decorate cakes, cookies, and other dessert items. We package as well as anyone in the business, with lots of protective padding and containers. Please ask for a rate quotation.ABOUT US : Most of the items I offer come from the collection of a family friend who was active in the field of Archaeology for over forty years. Though I have always had an interest in archaeology, my own academic background was in sociology and cultural anthropology. After my retirement however, I found myself drawn to archaeology as well. I spend over half of my year out of the United States, and have spent much of my life either in India or Eastern Europe. Petersburg, as well as some other worthy institutions in Europe connected with Anthropology and Archaeology. I acquire some small but interesting collections overseas from time-to-time, and have as well some duplicate items within my own collection which I occasionally decide to part with. Though I have a collection of ancient coins numbering in the tens of thousands, my primary interest is in ancient jewelry. My wife also is an active participant in the business of antique and ancient jewelry, and is from Russia. The item "AD900 Ancient Roman-Byzantine Constantinople Istanbul Starburst Silver Ring Sz6½" is in sale since Sunday, March 18, 2018. This item is in the category "Antiques\Ethnographic\Other Ethnographic Antiques". The seller is "ancientgifts" and is located in Lummi Island, Washington. This item can be shipped worldwide.