Silver Roman Denarius of Emperor Nerva (Struck by Trajan, his Successor) with a Reverse Theme Depicting Two Clasped Hands and a Roman Legionary Standard. Allegorical to the Goddess Concordia and Concord Between the Legionary Armies, 98 or 99 A. Struck in Roman (Greek/Hellenic) Colonial Caesarea, Cappadocia (Modern-Day Turkey). GREEK (as per the coin): AYT KAIC NEP TPAIANO CEB GEPM.LATIN (translation): IMP CAES NER TRAIANI AVG GERM. OBVERSE DEPICTION : The head of Emperor Nerva, right, laureate crown (laurel wreath). GREEK (as per the coin): DHM EX UPAT B. REVERSE DEPICTION : Two Clasped Hands and a Roman Legionary Standard Resting Atop a Ships Prow. Allegorical to the Goddess Concordia and Concord Between the Legionary Armies. ATTRIBUTION : Struck in the Roman Provincial City of Caesarea, originally Mazaca, the capital of Cappadocia (Present-Day Kayseri, Central Turkey). Known to the Greeks as the Hellenic City of Eusebeia from About 150 B. Diameter: 19 x 18 millimeters. We can reverse coin in mounting if you prefer opposite side showing front. DETAIL : This is a very handsome, and fairly rare silver didrachm produced in the ancient city of Caesarea, in the Roman Province of Cappadocia.
Prior to the Romanization of Cappadocia, Caesarea was known as the Hellenic (Greek) city of Eusebia, and prior to that was known to the original Cappadocian inhabitants as Mazaca. It is present-day Kayseri, in central Turkey. The coin is believed to have been struck by the Roman Emperor Trajan, as a commemoration of his predecessor and adoptive father, the Roman Emperor Nerva.Nerva had died in January of 98 A. Experts believe this commemorative issue was struck later in 98 A. Nerva was thus remembered by Trajan to the Roman populace with the clasped hands which signify concord. A propagandistic message providing an interpretation of Roman history reminding the populace of that the legendary glories of the republic descend through the line of great republican generals and statesmen and the good emperors. The didrachm was struck with Greek legends as the area had been within the Hellenic sphere of influence up until the time that the area was annexed to Rome. It is in relatively good condition, modest wear from circulation in the ancient Roman Empire, but the legends and themes remain relatively clear. It was well struck both front and back the result a little off-center and a little oblong, and unlike most coins of the era, the strike caught most of both the legends and the themes, and this is applicable to both the obverse as well as the reverse.
The coin is just a little undersized, elongated on the horizontal axis, and off-center, and so it did not catch the entire strike. So some of the legend on both obverse and reverse are very slightly truncated i. A portion of the Greek letters were chopped off at the top, though the themes are present in their entirety. Despite the very typical and modest shortcomings, it is a very thick coin in high relief. On the whole it is without a doubt a very nice strike, the slightly undersized, oblong planchet (coin blank) and modest circulatory wear more than made up by the thickness of the coin and the height of the relief.
The obverse of the coin depicts the head of the Roman Emperor Nerva, even though the coin was struck by his successor the Emperor Trajan. Even the legends of the coin refer to the Emperor Trajan, nonetheless the bust depicted is of the preceding Emperor Nerva. Emperor Nerva is depicted with laureate crown and accompanied a fairly complex legend.The legend, which again refers to Emperor Trajan and not Emperor Nerva, is in Greek and within the limitations of a Latin keyboard, it reads AVT KAIC NER TRAIANI CEB GERM. Were the legend in Latin, it would read something like IMP CAES NERVA TRAIANI AVG GERM. TRAIANI would be short of TRAIANVS, or Trajanus or Trajan as he is known in English, which of course refers to the Emperors name, there being no J in Roman Latin and no U; the I and V being those closest to the English J and U. NERVA is in recognition of his adoption by his predecessor, the Emperor Nerva (who is depicted on the coin). Emperor Trajans name is preceded by AVT or AVTOKRATOR in Greek, the equivalent of the three Latin letters IMP, an abbreviation for the title Imperator (or autocrator, the origin of the term autocrat). Imperator was originally a title or acclamation awarded to victorious generals in the field during the Republic Period (before Julius Caesar). Throughout the history of Republican Rome, the title was bestowed upon an especially able general who had won an enormous victory. Traditionally it was the troops in the field that proclaimed a man imperator the first step in the process of the general applying to the senate for a triumph (a ceremony both civil and religious held in Rome itself to publicly honor the general and to display/parade the glories and trophies of Roman victory). After Augustus Octavian (Julius Caesars successor) had established the hereditary, one-man rule in Rome that we refer to as the Imperial Roman Empire, the title Imperator was restricted to the emperor and members of his immediate family. If a general who was not part of the imperial family was acclaimed by his troops as Imperator, it was tantamount to a declaration of rebellion or civil war against the ruling emperor. Though the title Augustus is probably the closest Latin equivalent to the English word emperor; it was eventually the term Imperator which became the root of the English word Imperial.
IMP could also be used to abbreviate the term Imperatrix, which was the title of the wife an Imperator. The Greek KAIC which follows is the equivalent of the Latin letter CAES, short for CAESAR. Caesar was a title of imperial character used by either the Emperor or the heir apparent of the Emperor though in the fragmenting later Roman Empire it was used to refer to the junior sub-emperors; inferior to Augustus, or the senior Emperor.
The titles origin was the name of Julius Caesar, the famous Roman General and Dictator. This came about when Octavius, eventually the first Emperor of Rome, was named by Julius Caesar posthumously (in his will) as his heir and adopted son. Octavius adopted the name Caesar in order to emphasize his relationship with his Uncle, Julius Caesar. Eventually the term evolved into part of a title, Imperator Caesar Augustus, when Octavious adopted his nephew Tiberius Claudius Nero as his successor, renaming him "Tiberius Iulius Caesar". The precedent was set: the Emperor designated his successor by adopting him and giving him the name "Caesar".
The title was occasionally accompanied by that of Princeps Iuventutis (literally "Prince of Youth"). After some variation among the earliest Emperors, the title of the heir apparent evolved into NN Caesar before accession and Imperator Caesar NN Augustus after accession. A later evolution expanded the title to NN Nobilissimus Caesar (Most Noble Caesar) rather than simply NN Caesar.
Ultimately to this the additional titles Pius Felix ("the Pious and Blessed") and Invictus ("the Unconquered") were added. The next appellation in the legend is the Greek CEB, which is equivalent to the Latin AVG, which was an abbreviation for Augustus. The term Augustus is Latin for majestic (thus the honorific salutation your majesty).However the term Augustus in the common vernacular of the Roman Empire became synonymous with the Emperor. The first "Augustus" (and first man counted as a Roman Emperor) was Octavius, Julis Caesars nephew and heir. Octavian was given the title of Augustus by the Senate in 27 B. Over the next forty years, Caesar Augustus literally set the standard by which subsequent Emperors would be recognized, accumulating various offices and powers and making his own name ("Augustus") identifiable with the consolidation of these powers under a single person. Although the name signified nothing in constitutional theory, it was recognized as representing all the powers that Caesar Augustus eventually accumulated.
Caesar Augustus also set the standard by which Roman Emperors were named. The three titles used by the majority of Roman Emperors; Imperator, Caesar, and Augustus were all used personally by Caesar Augustus (he officially styled himself "Imperator Caesar Augustus"). However of the name "Augustus" was unique to the Emperor himself (though the Emperor's mother or wife could bear the name "Augusta").
But others could and did bear the titles "Imperator" and "Caesar". Later usage saw the Emperor adding the additional titles Pius Felix (pious and blessed) and Invictus (unconquered) in addition to the title Augustus. In this usage, by signifying the complete assumption of all Imperial powers, "Augustus" became roughly synonymous with Emperor in modern language. As the Roman Empire began splintering, Augustus came to be the title applied to the senior Emperor, while the title Caesar came to refer to his junior sub-Emperors.
Finally the obverse inscriptions ends with GERM in Greek, the abbreviated equivalent of GERMANICVS in Latin. GERM is short for Germanicus Maximus, the greatest conqueror of the Germans. The title celebrates the Emperors conquest of the German tribes in Pannonia in 97 A. While he was still Governor of Upper Germany under Emperor Nerva.
The suffix DACICVS, although not present on this coin, was added to Trajans later coinage, and was short for Dacicus Maximus, again, literally the greatest conqueror of the Dacians. The title celebrates the Emperors conquest of Dacia in 101 and 102 A.
Which was subsequently annexed as part of the Roman Empire. Thats what helps date this coin to 98 or 99 A.As Trajan is only identified as the conqueror of Germany, and not Dicia. Back to the portrait of Trajans adoptive father and predecessor, Nerva is depicted laureate, or wearing a wreath or crown composed of laurel, or bay leaves. This wreath of laurel leaves is an attribute of the Graeco-Roman God Apollo, and is a symbol of victory. In Greek Mythology, Apollo fell in love with the legendary mountain nymph Daphene. Daphene, anxious to escape Apollos amorous interests, asked the Gods of Olympus to change her into a bay tree. Thereafter Apollo always wore a laurel wreath made from the leaves of her sacred tree to show is never failing love for her. Apollo also declared that wreaths were to be awarded to victors, both in athletic competitions and poetic meets under his care. Laurel wreaths became the prize awarded in athletic, musical, and poetic competitions.
For instance by the 6th century B. The winners of the ancient Greek Pythian Games (forerunner of the Olympics and held every four years at Delphi) were awarded a wreath of laurel leaves. Ancient Greek coins from at least as far back as the second century B.
Depict laurel wreaths worn by not only Apollo, but also Athena, Saturn, Jupiter, Victory (Nike), and Salus. Eventually the custom of awarding a wreath of laurel leaves was extended from victors of athletic events to the victors of military endeavors. The symbolism was inherited (or mimicked) by the Romans, to whom the bestowal of a laurel wreath became the sign of a victorious general acclaimed by his troops. After defeating Pompey, the Roman Senate not only voted Julius Caesar Imperator for life, but also awarded him the right to wear the laurel wreath in perpetuity.
From that point on it is said that Julius Caesar always appeared in public laureate, and all of his coinage depicted Julius Caesar wearing the laurel leaf crown. Thus the laurel leaf crown became associated not only with the victorious general, but became a symbol of the office of Caesar and Imperator. There were other types of wreaths in Graeco-Roman Mythology as well. Dionysus was oftentimes depicted either with a wreath of ivy or with a wreath composed of grape leaves. Zeus was oftentimes depicted with a wreath of oak leaves, and wreathes of roses became associated with Aphrodite.
As well, funeral wreaths became a Roman custom, and were often carved into the decorative elements of a sarcophagus. The Emperor Marcus Cocceius Nerva, depicted on the obverse of this coin, was born at Narni, in Umbria (within present-day Italy), A. The family was not particularly illustrious, though eminent from its consular honors; was originally from Crete. The Emperor Nero was the first to advance Nervas political career, appointing him Praetor (Mayor) of Rome in 65 A.
Nerva was co-Consul with the future emperor Vespasian, and in 90 A. Co-Consul again with the future emperor Domitian. Emperor Domitian was assassinated in 96 A.
The culmination of a conspiracy which included the Praetorian Guard and members of Domitian imperial circle. On the day of Domitians death in 96 A. Nerva was elected emperor by the senate and the Praetorian Guard. History records Nerva as being upright, moderate, merciful, wise, generous, and of a sweet disposition, whose primary object in governing Rome was to restore happiness to the empire. In direct contrast to the horrors of Domitians reign, Nerva instituted a government of justice and equity.
Nevertheless being advanced in years, and under the impression that he was unpopular with the Praetorian Guard and the military, he adopted as his son the popular military general, Trajan, and made Trajan Caesar, his colleague and successor. Nerva died three months later at the age of 66. Notwithstanding the shortness of his reign, the coinage of Nerva was extensive.
The Emperor Trajan, during whose reigh this coin was struck, was born Marcus Ulpius Trajanus in Spain on September 18, 53 A. Trajan was the son of M. Ulpius Traianus, a prominent senator and general from a famous Roman family.
The family had settled in the province of Hispania Baetica (Andalusia, Spain) sometime toward the end of the Second Punic War with Carthage. Trajan rose through the ranks of the Roman army, serving in Syria under his father and then in some of the most contentious parts of the empire's frontier, along the Rhine River. As legate of Spains Legion VII Gemina he marched to the Rhine at Emperor Domitians orders in 89 A.
To crush the uprising of a usurper to the throne, Antoninus Saturninus. He then took part in Emperor Domitian's wars against the Germanic peoples, and was known as one of the foremost military commanders of the empire when Domitian was killed in 96 A. Domitians successor Nerva appointed Trajan governor of Upper Germany (Germania Superior). Nerva used the occasion of a victory in Pannonia over the Germans in late October, 97 A.To announce the adoption of Trajan. The new Caesar was immediately acclaimed Imperator and granted the Tribunicia Potestas. From victory against the Germans Nerva assumed the epithet Germanicus (greatest conqueror of the Germans) and conferred the title on Trajan as well. Nerva also appointed Trajan as Counsel, just before his death in January of 98 A. In a quiet and peaceful accession, Trajan assumed Nervas vacant throne, so becoming the first non-Italian Emperor of Rome.
The almost century long period between Trajans accession to the throne in 96 A. And Marcus Aureliuss death in 180 A. Marked a period recorded by Edward Gibbons, famous chronicler of the Empire, as the five good emperors. It was a period in which heirs were selected by aptitude and then adoption rather than merely ones genetic offspring.
It was a period of great stability and prosperity. In the end, Marcus Aurelius failed to adopt an heir, instead, allowing the throne to go to his biological offspring Commodus (the unstable offspring/emperor portrayed in the Hollywood hit Gladiator).Shortly after his accession to the throne Trajan undertook the conquest of Dacia, which was subsequently annexed as a Roman province. After Trajan captured Sarmizigethusa, the Dacian capital in 102 A. He received the title of Dacicus (greatest conqueror of the Dacians). A famous column, still standing today in Rome, was built to commemorate the Dacian Wars. Trajan commissioned an extensive building program within the city of Rome, and constructed many roads, bridges, and aqueducts throughout the Empire. His popularity was such that the Roman Senate eventually bestowed upon Trajan the honorific of optimus, meaning "the best". These were truly the glory days of the Roman Empire, and the Empire expanded to its maximum historical limits.
In 113 AD Trajan set out to annex (by force, of course) both Armenia and Mesopotamia. He achieved considerable success in his efforts to expand the Eastern frontier, and four new provinces were added to the Roman Empire as a consequence.Trajan conquered Armenia and took the Parthian cities of Babylon, Seleucia, Susa, and the capital of Ctesiphon in 116 A. He continued southward to the Persian Gulf from where he declared Mesopotamia a new province of the empire. Never again would the Roman Empire advance so far to the east. Shortly thereafter however revolts broke out in a number of provinces closer to Rome and Trajan was forced to withdraw to Antioch. Trajan set out to return to Rome, but died on the return journey at Selinus in Cilicia in August of 117 A. On his death bed he had named Hadrian as his successor. The reverse of the coin portrays an allegorical message pertaining to the goddess, and/or mythical personification of the "Roman" virtue of Concord, or Harmony (agreement, understanding, and marital harmony). This almost-deity was featured on the reverse of many Roman issues in the form of "Concordia", the equivalent to the ancient Greeks Homonoia. A personification isnt really a deity or goddess, it is rather a symbol much like the Statue of Liberty symbolizes both America and the abstract concept of freedom and liberty. In Roman context, these are the values at the heart of the Via Romana the Roman Way and are thought to be those qualities which gave the Roman Republic the moral strength to conquer and civilize the world. This depiction is allegorical to Concordia Militum, i.
Concord between the Roman Legionary Armies and the Emperor (who was often overthrown by Legionary Commanders), or in the later Roman Empire, between the various competing Roman Legionary Armies (who fought each other as often as they did invaders) and their respective commanders. As well as the military depiction of Concordia used to promote or propagandize harmony and concord between the Emperor and the Legionary armies, or between the various armies themselves, the equally common non-military depiction of Concordia, was widely used to denote the virtue of concord and/or harmony between a husband and a wife, the Western and Eastern Emperor, the Emperor and the Empress, the Senate and the Emperor, etc. Though these virtues could also be depicted in many forms (such as clasped hands, sometimes each depicted holding a winged cauduceus), oftentimes the goddess herself was depicted. Typically Concordia was portrayed holding a cornucopiae and scepter or hasta pura, though oftentimes whe was alternatively depicted holding a patera over an altar, preparing to pour out an offering.
A hasta pura, a ceremonial lance (spear, pike) without an iron head, oftentimes with a knob at the end, the forerunner of the standard pilum issued to Roman soldiers. The hasta was derived by the Roman from the Etrurians, who called it a corim. By the Sabines it was called a quiris, their king called coritos as the spear was to them an attribute of royalty.The Hasta was the symbol not only of power, fortitude and valor, but also of majesty and even divinity. It is one of the insignia of the Gods, and of the Emperors and Augustae after their apotheosis, implying that they had become objects of worship. It is generally found in the hands of female divinities, as the war-spear is in those of warriors and heroes. Its name literally means blameless spear, and it was sometimes awarded ceremoniously to soldiers who had saved anothers life. A cornucopiae of course is a horn of plenty, a symbol of abundance generally a wicker container filled with fruits or vegetables. Used since at least the fifth century B. It seems to have originated in Greek mythology where Amalthea raised Zeus on the milk of a goat. In return Zeus gave her the goat's horn. It had the power to give to the person in possession of it whatever he or she wished for.
This gave rise to the legend of the cornucopia. The original depictions were of the goat's horn filled with fruits and flowers.
Greek and Roman deities would be depicted with the horn of plenty, which was especially associated with the Roman Goddess Fortuna (Greek Tyche). Occasionally Corcordia would be depicted with a stork (a bird known for its cordial behavior toward its parents), a dove, or rarely, a peacock. Sometimes rather than a hasta pura Concordia might be shown holding out an olive branch or a flower. Another frequent substitution for the hasta pura was a depiction of Concordia holding a patera (a broad, flat, round dish used for drinking and ceremonially, for offering libations).Oftentimes Concordia would be depicted holding the patera over an altar, preparing to pour out an offering. Sometimes Concordia would be simply represented by two clasped hands each holding a winged cauduceus. The cauduceus was in Greek Mythology originally an attribute of Hermes (Mercury to the Romans), messenger of the gods of Mount Olympus. The cauduceus was originally an enchanters wand, a symbol of the power that produces wealth and prosperity, and also an emblem of the influence over the living and the dead. But even in early times it was regarded as a heralds staff and an emblem of peaceful intercourse.
It consisted of three shoots, one of which formed the handle, the other two being intertwined at the top in a knot. The place of the latter two intertwined shoots was eventually taken by serpents and was an attribute of Asclepius, the Graeco-Roman God of Medicine. Many shrines were erected to Concordia during the Republic era, especially in celebration of the cessation of civil dissension. The earliest was a temple on the Forum Romanum dedicated by Camillus in 367 B.A second temple was erected on the Capitolium in 216 B. There were as well other temples to Concordia scattered throughout Rome. The Goddess Concordia was also invoked together with Janus, Salus, and Pax at the family festival of the Caristia each March 30th, and by married woman along with Venus and Fortuna on the following day. During the Imperial period which followed, Concordia Augusta was worshipped as the protectress of harmony, especially of matrimonial agreement in the Emperors household.
In art (especially statuary), Concordia was generally depicted sitting, wearing a long cloak and holding onto a patera (a sacrificial bowl) and one or two cornucopiae. Sometimes, she is shown standing between two members of the Royal House shaking hands (this depiction of the emperor and empress is quite common). If youd like to learn more about Concordia, theres a good article here. The legend on the reverse of the coin actually refers to the goddess not at all.In Greek the legend is inscribed DHM EX UPAT B. Rather it is a recitation some of the various accolades and titles held by the Emperor Trajan. P M is an abbreviation for Pontifex Maximus. As Augustus, an acclamation or title oftentimes attributed to the Emperor was that of as Pontifex Maximus, literally "greatest bridgemaker", the significance being that he was the chief priest of the Roman state religion. Onwards this title has been held by the Pope in Rome. Prior to Octavious Augustus Julius Caesar (in the Roman Republic) the Pontifex Maximus was the head of the pagan Roman Religion, the most important of the priests (pontifices) of the sacred college (Collegium Pontificum). However with the establishment of Empire, Julius Caesar, then Octavius Augustus, and then each Roman Emperor afterwards held the title Pontifex Maximus himself, as the Roman Emperor became deified, i. A living god and the apex of the Roman religion. The reverse legend continues, TR P, an abbreviation for Tribunicia Potestas. As Augustus, an acclamation or title oftentimes attributed to the Emperor was that of Tribunicia Potestas, literally tribunician power. Of course constitutionally Tribunes were meant to represent the common man, the plebians. Since it was legally impossible for a patrician to be a tribune of the people, the first Roman "Emperor", Caesar Augustus, was instead offered of the powers of the tribunate without actually holding the office. This formed one of the main constitutional basis of Augustus' authority, and the power was generally renewed annually by successive Emperors.
The abbreviation COS II, an abbreviation indicating (the second) term as Consul. As Augustus, an acclamation or title oftentimes attributed to the Emperor was that of Consul. As Consular Imperium (Imperial Consul) he had authority equal to the official chief magistrates within Rome. He had authority greater than the chief magistrates outside of the city of Rome, and thus outranked all provincial governors and was also supreme commander of all Roman Legions. Originally Consul was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic (ultimately it was an appointed office under the Empire).
Under the Republic two consuls (with executive power) were elected each year, serving together with veto power over each other's actions. The office of consul was believed to date back to the traditional establishment of the Republic in 509 B. During times of war, the primary criterion for consul was military skill and reputation, but at all times the selection was politically charged.Initially only patricians could be consuls, but later the plebeians won the right to stand for election. With the passage of time, the consulship became the penultimate endpoint of the sequence of offices pursued by the ambitious Roman. When Octavius Augustus, heir to Julius Caesar, established the Empire; he changed the nature of the office, stripping it of most of its powers. While still a great honor and a requirement for other offices, about half of the men who held the rank of Praetor would also reach the consulship. However under the Empire, Emperors frequently appointed themselves, protégés, or relatives without regard to the requirements of office. For example, the Emperor Honorius was given the consulship at birth. One of the reforms of Constantine the Great was to assign one of the consuls to the city of Rome and the other to Constantinople.
When the Roman Empire was divided into two halves on the death of Theodosius I, the emperor of each half acquired the right of appointing one of the consuls. As a result, after the formal end of the Roman Empire in the West, for many years thereafter there would be only one Consul of Rome. Finally in the reign of Justinian the consulship was allowed die; first in Rome in 534 A.
Then in Constantinople in 541 A. HISTORY OF ROMAN PROVINICIAL CAPPADOCIA : The coin was actually struck at the ancient city of Caesarea, in the Roman Province of Cappadocia. It is present-day Kayseri, in central Turkey, most of what was ancient Cappadocia laying in the Nevehir Province. The name Cappadocia was traditionally used in Christian sources throughout history and is still widely used as an international tourism concept to define a region of exceptional natural wonders, in particular characterized by unique ancient architectural elements, historical and cultural heritage.Pendant style a is a clear, airtight acrylic capsule designed to afford your ancient coin maximum protection from both impact damage and degradation. It is the most politically correct mounting. Style d is a sterling silver pendant. Either pendant styles include a sterling silver chain (16", 18", or 20). Upon request, there are also an almost infinite variety of other pendants which might well suit both you and your ancient coin pendant, and include both sterling silver and solid 14kt gold mountings, including those shown here. As well, upon request, we can also make available a huge variety of chains in lengths from 16 to 30 inches, in metals including sterling silver, 14kt gold fill, and solid 14kt gold. Ancient Cappadocia's geographical boundaries are somewhat ambiguous and debatable. In the time of Herodotus, the ancient 5th century B. Greek Author, the Cappadocians were reported as occupying the whole region from Mount Taurus to the vicinity of the Euxine (Black Sea). Cappadocia, in this sense, was bounded in the south by the chain of Mount Taurus, to the east by the Euphrates, to the north by Pontus, and to the west by Lake Tuz, in Central Anatolia. Cappadocia was known as Hatti in the late Bronze Age, and was the homeland of the Hittite power centred at Hattusa. After the fall of the Hittite Empire, with the decline of the Syro-Cappadocians (Mushki) after their defeat by the Lydian king Croesus in the 6th century, Cappadocia was ruled by a sort of feudal aristocracy, dwelling in strong castles and keeping the peasants in a servile condition, which later made them apt for foreign slavery. The earliest record of the name of Cappadocia dates from the late 6th century B. When it appears in the trilingual inscriptions of two early Achaemenid kings, Darius I and Xerxes, as one of the subjugate countries of the Persian Empire. In these lists of countries, the Old Persian name is Katpatuka, clearly not a native Persian name. The Elamite and Akkadian language versions of the inscriptions contain a similar name.
Herodotus tells us that the name of the Cappadocians was applied to them by the Persians, while they were termed by the Greeks as "Syrians" or "White Syrians". One of the Cappadocian tribes he mentions is the Moschoi, associated by Flavius Josephus with the biblical figure Meshech, son of Japheth. Cappadocia is also mentioned in the Biblical account given in the book of Acts 2:9.
The Cappadocians were named as one group hearing the Gospel account from Galileans in their own language on the day of Pentecost shortly after the resurrection of Jesus Christ. Acts 2:5 seems to suggest that the Cappadocians in this account were "God-fearing Jews". Under the later kings of the Persian Empire, the Cappadocians were divided into two satrapies, or governments, with one comprising the central and inland portion, to which the name of Cappadocia continued to be applied by Greek geographers, while the other was called Pontus. This division had already come about before the time of the 4th century B.As after the fall of the Persian government the two provinces continued to be separate, the distinction was perpetuated, and the name Cappadocia came to be restricted to the inland province (sometimes called Great Cappadocia). After bringing the Persian Empire to an end, Alexander the Great tried to rule the area through one of his military commanders. But Ariarathes, a Persian aristocrat, somehow became king of the Cappadocians. Ariarthes I (332322 BC) was a successful ruler, and he extended the borders of the Cappadocian Kingdom as far as to the Black Sea.
The kingdom of Cappadocia was still in existence in the time of the 1st century Greek Historian Strabo as a nominally independent state. Cilicia was the name given to the district in which Caesarea, the capital of the whole country, was situated. The only two cities of Cappadocia considered by Strabo to deserve that appellation were Caesarea and Tyana, not far from the foot of the Taurus. Cappadocia was annexed by Rome in 17 A. By the Emperor Tiberius, and after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, it remained part of the Eastern Roman Empire, commonly referred to as the Byzantine Empire.
Cappadocia contains several underground cities, largely used by early Christians as hiding places before they became an accepted religion. The Cappadocian Fathers of the 4th century were integral to much of early Christian philosophy.It also produced, among other people, another Patriarch of Constantinople, John of Cappadocia, who held office from 517 through 520 A. For most of the Byzantine era it remained relatively undisturbed by the conflicts in the area with the Sassanid Empire, but was a vital frontier zone later against the Muslim conquests. Cappadocia became part of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, a state formed in the 12th century by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuk invasion of Armenia and a close ally of the Crusaders.
Following the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, various Turkish clans under the leadership of the Seljuks began settling in Anatolia. With the rise of Turkish power in Anatolia, Cappadocia slowly became a tributary to the Turkish states that were established to the east and to the west, and some of the population converted to Islam. By the end of the early 12th century, Anatolian Seljuks had established their sole dominance over the region.
With the decline and the fall of the Konya-based Seljuks in the second half of the 13th century, they were gradually replaced by the Karaman-based Beylik of Karamanolu, who themselves were gradually succeeded by the Ottoman Empire over the course of the 15th century. Cappadocia remained part of the Ottoman Empire for the centuries to come, and remains now part of the modern state of Turkey.
HISTORY OF COINAGE : Coins came into being during the seventh century B. In Lydia and Ionia, part of the Greek world, and were made from a naturally occurring alloy of gold and silver. Each coin blank was heated and struck with a hammer between two engraved dies.
Unlike modern coins, they were not uniformly round. Each coin was wonderfully unique. Coinage quickly spread to the island and city states of Western Greece. Alexander the Great 336-323 B. Then spread the concept of coinage throughout the lands he conquered.
Today ancient coins are archaeological treasures from the past, and on many occasions have provided profound new knowledge to historians. They were buried for safekeeping because of their value and have been slowly uncovered throughout modern history. Oftentimes soldiers the night before battle would bury their coins and jewelry, hoping and believing that they would live long enough to recover them, and to return to their family. Killed in battle, these little treasure hoards remain until today scattered throughout Western and Eastern Europe, even into the Levant and Persia. As well, everyone from merchants to housewives found the safest place to keep their savings was buried in a pot, or in some other secretive location.
Recently a commercial excavation for a new building foundation in London unearthed a Roman mosaic floor. When archaeologists removed the floor, they found 7,000 silver denarii secreted beneath the floor. Even the Roman mints buried their produce. There were over 300 mints in the Roman Empire striking coinage.
Hoards of as many as 40,000 coins have been found in a single location near these ancient sites. Ancient coins reflect the artistic, political, religious, and economic themes of their times. The acquisition of ancient coins is a unique opportunity to collect art which has been appreciated throughout the centuries. Coins of the Roman Empire most frequently depicted the Emperor on the front of the coins, and were issued in gold, silver, and bronze. The imperial family was also frequently depicted on the coinage, and, in some cases, coins depicted the progression of an emperor from boyhood through maturity.
The reverse side of often served as an important means of political propaganda, frequently extolling the virtues of the emperor or commemorating his victories. Many public works and architectural achievements such as the Coliseum and the Circus Maximus were also depicted. As well, important political events such as alliances between cities were recorded on coinage.Many usurpers to the throne, otherwise unrecorded in history, are known only through their coins. Interestingly, a visually stunning portrayal of the decline of the Roman Empire is reflected in her coinage. The early Roman bronze coins were the size of a half-dollar. Within 100-150 years those had shrunk to the size of a nickel. And within another 100-150 years, to perhaps half the size of a dime. At the height of the Roman Empire there were over 400 mints producing coinage, in locations as diverse as Britain, Africa, and the Near East. The annual produce of these mints is estimated to have been between one and two billion coins. ROMAN HISTORY: One of the greatest civilizations of recorded history was the ancient Roman Empire. The Roman civilization, in relative terms the greatest military power in the history of the world, was founded in the 8th century B. On seven hills alongside Italys Tiber River. By the 4th Century B. The Romans were the dominant power on the Italian Peninsula, having defeated the Etruscans, Celts, Latins, and Greek Italian colonies.
In the 3rd Century B. The Romans conquered Sicily, and in the following century defeated Carthage, and controlled Greece. Throughout the remainder of the 2nd Century B. The Roman Empire continued its gradual conquest of the Hellenistic (Greek Colonial) World by conquering Syria and Macedonia; and finally came to control Egypt and much of the Near East and Levant (Holy Land) in the 1st Century B.The pinnacle of Roman power was achieved in the 1st Century A. As Rome conquered much of Britain and Western Europe. At its peak, the Roman Empire stretched from Britain in the West, throughout most of Western, Central, and Eastern Europe, and into Asia Minor. For a brief time, the era of Pax Romana, a time of peace and consolidation reigned. Civilian emperors were the rule, and the culture flourished with a great deal of liberty enjoyed by the average Roman Citizen. However within 200 years the Roman Empire was in a state of steady decay, attacked by Germans, Goths, and Persians. The decline was temporarily halted by third century Emperor Diocletian. In the 4th Century A. The Roman Empire was split between East and West. The Great Emperor Constantine again managed to temporarily arrest the decay of the Empire, but within a hundred years after his death the Persians captured Mesopotamia, Vandals infiltrated Gaul and Spain, and the Goths even sacked Rome itself. Most historians date the end of the Western Roman Empire to 476 A. When Emperor Romulus Augustus was deposed. However the Eastern Roman Empire (The Byzantine Empire) survived until the fall of Constantinople in 1453 A. In the ancient world valuables such as coins and jewelry were commonly buried for safekeeping, and inevitably the owners would succumb to one of the many perils of the ancient world.
Oftentimes the survivors of these individuals did not know where the valuables had been buried, and today, thousands of years later (occasionally massive) caches of coins and rings are still commonly uncovered throughout Europe and Asia Minor. Throughout history these treasures have been inadvertently discovered by farmers in their fields, uncovered by erosion, and the target of unsystematic searches by treasure seekers. With the introduction of metal detectors and other modern technologies to Eastern Europe in the past three or four decades, an amazing number of new finds are seeing the light of day thousands of years after they were originally hidden by their past owners.
And with the liberalization of post-Soviet Eastern Europe, new sources have opened eager to share in these ancient treasures. HISTORY OF SILVER : After gold, silver is the metal most widely used in jewelry and the most malleable.
The oldest silver artifacts found by archaeologists date from ancient Sumeria about 4,000 B. At many points in the ancient world, it was actually more costly than gold, particularly in ancient Egypt. Silver is found in native form i. In nuggets, as an alloy with gold (electrum), and in ores containing sulfur, arsenic, antimony or chlorine.
Much of the silver originally found in the ancient world was actually a natural alloy of gold and silver (in nugget form) known as electrum. The first large-scale silver mines were in Anatolia (ancient Turkey) and Armenia, where as early as 4,000 B. Silver was extracted from lead ores by means of a complicated process known as smelting.
Even then the process was not perfect, as ancient silver does contain trace elements, typically lead, gold, bismuth and other metals, and as much as a third of the silver was left behind in the slag. However measuring the concentrations of the impurities in ancient silver can help the forensic jewelry historian in determining the authenticity of classical items. From Turkey and Armenia silver refining technology spread to the rest of Asia Minor and Europe. By about 2,500 B.
The Babylonians were one of the major refiners of silver. Silver treasures recovered by archaeologists from the second and third millenniums demonstrate the high value the ancient Mediterranean and Near East placed upon silver. Some of the richest burials in history uncovered by archaeologists have been from this time frame, that of Queen Puabi of Ur, Sumeria 26th century B.
, and the rich Trojan 25th century B. And Mycenaean 18th century B. Treasures uncovered by Heinrich Schliemann.The ancient Egyptians believed that the skin of their gods was composed of gold, and their bones were thought to be of silver. When silver was introduced into Egypt, it probably was more valuable than gold (silver was rarer and more valuable than gold in many Mesoamerican cultures as well). In surviving inventories of valuables, items of silver were listed above those of gold during the Old Kingdom. Jewelry made of silver was almost always thinner than gold pieces, as indicated by the bracelets of the 4th Dynasty about 2,500 B.
Queen Hetephere I, in marked contrast to the extravagance of her heavy gold jewelry. A silver treasure excavated by archaeologists and attributable to the reign of Amenemhat II who ruled during the 12th Dynasty about 1900 B. , contained fine silver items which were actually produced in Crete, by the ancient Minoans. When the price of silver finally did fall due to more readily available supplies, for at least another thousand years through at least the 19th dynasty, about 1,200 B. The price of silver seems to have been fixed at half that of gold.
Several royal mummies attributable to about 1,000 B. Were even entombed in solid silver coffins. Greek Athenians began producing silver from the Laurium mines, and would supply much of the ancient Mediterranean world with its silver for almost 1,000 years. This ancient source was eventually supplemented around 800 B. (and then eventually supplanted) by the massive silver mines found in Spain by the Phoenicians and their colony (and ultimate successors) the Carthaginians (operated in part by Hannibals family).With the defeat of Carthage by Rome, the Romans gained control of these vast deposits, and mined massive amounts of silver from Spain, stripping entire forests regions for timber to fuel smelting operations. In fact, it was not until the Middle Ages that Spains silver mines (and her forests) were finally exhausted. Although known during the Copper Age, silver made only rare appearances in jewelry before the classical age. Despite its infrequent use as jewelry however, silver was widely used as coinage due to its softness, brilliant color, and resistance to oxidation. By the Lydians of present-day Turkey.
Having access to silver deposits and being able to mine them played a big role in the classical world. Actual silver coins were first produced in Lydia about 610 B. And subsequently in Athens in about 580 B. Many historians have argued that it was the possession and exploitation of the Laurium mines by the Athenians that allowed them to become the most powerful city state in Greece.
The Athenians were well aware of the significance of the mining operations to the prosperity of their city, as every citizen had shares in the mines. Enough silver was mined and refined at Laurium to finance the expansion of Athens as a trading and naval power. One estimate is that Laurium produced 160 million ounces of silver, worth six billion dollars today (when silver is by comparison relatively cheap and abundant).
As the production of silver from the Laurium mines ultimately diminished, Greek silver production shifted to mines in Macedonia. Silver coinage played a significant role in the ancient world. Macedonias coinage during the reign of Philip II 359-336 B. Circulated widely throughout the Hellenic world. His famous son, Alexander the Great 336-323 B.
, spread the concept of coinage throughout the lands he conquered. For both Philip II and Alexander silver coins became an essential way of paying their armies and meeting other military expenses. They also used coins to make a realistic portrait of the ruler of the country. The Romans also used silver coins to pay their legions. Roman silver coins also served as an important means of political propaganda, extolling the virtues of Rome and her emperors, and continued in the Greek tradition of realistic portraiture.
As well, many public works and architectural achievements were also depicted (among them the Coliseum, the Circus Maximus). In addition many important political events were recorded on the coinage. Roman coins depicted the assassination of Julius Caesar, alliances between cities, between emperors, between armies, etc. And many contenders for the throne of Rome are known only through their coinage.Silver was also widely used as ornamental work and in other metal wares. In ancient cultures, especially in Rome, silver was highly prized for the making of plate ware, household utensils, and ornamental work.
The stability of Romes economy and currency depended primarily on the output of the silver mines in Spain which they had wrested from the Carthaginians. In fact many historians would say that it was the control of the wealth of these silver mines which enabled Rome to conquer most of the Mediterranean world.
The Romans invaded Britain they were quick to discover and exploit the lead-silver deposits there as well. Only six years later they had established many mines and Britain became another major source of silver for the Roman Empire. It is estimated that by the second century A. 10,000 tons of Roman silver coins were in circulation within the empire.Thats about 3½ billion silver coins (at the height of the empire, there were over 400 mints throughout the empire producing coinage). Thats ten times the total amount of silver available to Medieval Europe and the Islamic world combined as of about 800 A. Silver later lost its position of dominance to gold, particularly in the chaos following the fall of Rome. Large-scale mining in Spain petered out, and when large-scale silver mining finally resumed four centuries after the fall of Rome, most of the mining activity was in Central Europe. By the time of the European High Middle Ages, silver once again became the principal material used for metal artwork.
Huge quantities of silver from the New World also encouraged eager buyers in Europe, and enabled the Spanish to become major players in the late Medieval and Renaissance periods. Unlike the ores in Europe which required laborious extraction and refining methods to result in pure silver, solid silver was frequently found as placer deposits in stream beds in Spains New World colonies, reportedly in some instances solid slabs weighing as much as 2,500 pounds.Prior to the discovery of massive silver deposits in the New World, silver had been valued during the Middle Ages at about 10%-15% of the value of gold. The discovery of massive silver deposits in the New World during the succeeding centuries has caused the price to diminish greatly, falling to only 1-2% of the value of gold. The art of silver work flourished in the Renaissance, finding expression in virtually every imaginable form. Silver was often plated with gold and other decorative materials. Although silver sheets had been used to overlay wood and other metals since ancient Greece, an 18th-century technique of fusing thin silver sheets to copper brought silver goods called Sheffield plate within the reach of most people.
At the same time the use of silver in jewelry making had also started gaining popularity in the 17th century. It was often as support in settings for diamonds and other transparent precious stones, in order to encourage the reflection of light.
Silver continued to gain in popularity throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, and by the 20th century competed with gold as the principal metal used in the manufacture of jewelry. Silver has the highest thermal and electrical conductivity of any metal, and one of the highest optical reflectivity values. It has a brilliant metallic luster, is very ductile and malleable, only slightly harder than gold, and is easily worked and polished.When used in jewelry, silver is commonly alloyed to include 7.5% copper, known as sterling silver, to increase the hardness and reduce the melting temperature. Silver jewelry may be plated with 99.9% pure Fine Silver to increase the shine when polished. It may also be plated with rhodium to prevent tarnish. Virtually all gold, with the exception of 24 carat gold, includes silver.
Most gold alloys are primarily composed of only gold and silver. Throughout the history of the ancient world, gemstones were believed capable of curing illness, possessed of valuable metaphysical properties, and to provide protection.
Found in Egypt dated 1500 B. The "Papyrus Ebers" offered one of most complete therapeutic manuscripts containing prescriptions using gemstones and minerals. Gemstones were not only valued for their medicinal and protective properties, but also for educational and spiritual enhancement.Precious minerals were likewise considered to have medicinal and magical properties in the ancient world. In its pure form silver is non toxic, and when mixed with other elements is used in a wide variety of medicines. Silver ions and silver compounds show a toxic effect on some bacteria, viruses, algae and fungi. Silver was widely used before the advent of antibiotics to prevent and treat infections, silver nitrate being the prevalent form. Silver Iodide was used in babies' eyes upon birth to prevent blinding as the result of bacterial contamination. Silver is still widely used in topical gels and impregnated into bandages because of its wide-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The recorded use of silver to prevent infection dates to ancient Greece and Rome. Hippocrates, the ancient 5th century B. Greek "father of medicine" wrote that silver had beneficial healing and anti-disease properties. The ancient Phoenicians stored water, wine, and vinegar in silver bottles to prevent spoiling.
These uses were rediscovered in the Middle Ages, when silver was used for several purposes; such as to disinfect water and food during storage, and also for the treatment of burns and wounds as a wound dressing. The ingestion of colloidal silver was also believed to help restore the body's electromagnetic balance to a state of equilibrium, and it was believed to detoxify the liver and spleen. In the 19th century sailors on long ocean voyages would put silver coins in barrels of water and wine to keep the liquid potable. Silver (and gold) foil is also used through the world as a food decoration. Traditional Indian dishes sometimes include the use of decorative silver foil, and in various cultures silver dragée (silver coated sugar balls) are used to decorate cakes, cookies, and other dessert items.
We package as well as anyone in the business, with lots of protective padding and containers. Please ask for a rate quotation. ABOUT US : Most of the items I offer come from the collection of a family friend who was active in the field of Archaeology for over forty years. Though I have always had an interest in archaeology, my own academic background was in sociology and cultural anthropology. After my retirement however, I found myself drawn to archaeology as well.I spend over half of my year out of the United States, and have spent much of my life either in India or Eastern Europe. Petersburg, as well as some other worthy institutions in Europe connected with Anthropology and Archaeology. I acquire some small but interesting collections overseas from time-to-time, and have as well some duplicate items within my own collection which I occasionally decide to part with. Though I have a collection of ancient coins numbering in the tens of thousands, my primary interest is in ancient jewelry.
My wife also is an active participant in the business of antique and ancient jewelry, and is from Russia. The item "Silver Roman Denarius 98AD Ancient Emperor Nerva Goddess Concordia Clasped Hands" is in sale since Thursday, February 23, 2017.
This item is in the category "Jewelry & Watches\Vintage & Antique Jewelry\Fine\Victorian, Edwardian 1837-1910\Necklaces & Pendants". The seller is "ancientgifts" and is located in Lummi Island, Washington. This item can be shipped worldwide.